During the 1800s, polka dots appeared on some everyday clothing, such as the blouse shown in the picture above. The photo is unusual both because the woman pictured is smiling (not the customary pose in the mid-1800s) and she's engaged in a common household task. Most pictures from this era depict people in formal poses wearing their best attire.
Who put the "polka" in polka dots? There certainly doesn't seem to be any connection between the Polish dance and dotted fabric, but the terminology originated during the 1800s.